Can the principles of the garden cities movement be applied to high density living? A case study analysis of the Aqua Tower, Chicago

Can the principles of the garden cities movement be applied to high density living?

A case study analysis of the Aqua Tower, Chicago

Author

T’marh Ibn Isa Ibrahiim

Copyright @ 2018

 

Copyright Statement

This dissertation is protected by copyright. Do not copy any part of it for any purpose other than personal academic study without the permission of the author.

 

Abstract

My dissertation is focused on the application of the Garden Cities Movement which was developed by Ebenezer Howard during the industrial revolutionand whether it’s possible for the principals of this movement to be fulfilled by the modern residential building the Aqua Tower. The Aqua Tower was built in Chicago and completed in 2009. The reason for this comparison, is to understand to what extent that the building will be able to matchup to the functionality of a small town or city interms of cateringto its residents. Not only is the ability to house these people being put into question, but also to what extent the building caters to them in terms of agriculture, self- sustainability, mental wellbeing, health,and educational support.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Table of Content

Introduction

Garden Cities Movement

Principals of the Garden Cities Movement

Methods

The Aqua Tower

Analysis

PrivatelyOwned:

Self-Sustaining:

Facilitiesprovided:

EncouragedIndustry:

Inter-cityLinks:

Agriculture:

Servicespaidbyrent:

Natures effect on the mentality:

Conclusions

References

List of Figures

 

Introduction

With the explosive growth of the human population after the

beginning of the industrial revolution in the 1700th century, the

world’s population has expanded many times fold. In the period

between 1955 and 2016 alone, the population has grown by

almost 3 times from approximately 2.7B to 7.5B according to

data sourced from the

Census Bureau (2016). Partly due to this population growth,

cities have been expanding at a fast rate and as a result

urban population density has increased. Historically

(particularly between 1760 – 1860) this population density was

seen to cause widespread illness, poor living conditions and a

high mortality rate (Hudson 2014 p.147-148).

One proposed solution to this was Ebenezer Howard’s theory of

the Garden cities movement which was an attempt to lower

cities population density by having more scattered

development of sub-urban hubs, incorporating an urban type

environment in those sub-urban hubs (The Editors of

Encyclopædia Britannica 2016).

This dissertation aims to explore whether the principals of the

garden cities movement developed by Ebenezer Howard, have

been successfully applied to the design of the Aqua Tower

building in Chicago, USA that was completed in 2010 by Studio

Gang. By doing so, the dissertation will discuss whether

buildings such as this might be able to improve the way in

which cities accommodate rising populations. Increasing

the population density of existing cities, instead of

expanding them, could stop the consumption of the surface

area of the earth for housing, which could in turn allow more of

an area for natural resources and wildlife to operate with

balance.

The reason that I have decided to base this comparison on the

Aqua Tower, which was built in the U.S, is because despite the

Garden City movement being founded in England, the

movement also had a big impact on cities in America.

Examples of the effects that the movement had on town and

country planning are seen in places such as the three towns,

Greendale in Wisconsin, greenbelt in Maryland and Greenhills in

Ohio (Deborah Sheiman Shprentz, 1999). These three

greenbelt towns were planned in 1935 by Rexford Guy Tugwell

due to the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act in order to

deal with providing construction work for the relief workers.

“As in the war worker housing effort, the planners involved in

the green-belt program were interested in pursuing a road

agenda. Guiding the operation was Resettlement

Administration chief Rexford Gur Tugwell, who’s intellectual

affinity with the garden City ideals of Ebenezer Howard

included a belief in planning as a device to implement broader

social and economic restructuring of society.”

Douglas Kelbaugh (2008)

[show_more more="Read More" less="Read Less"]

Garden Cities Movement

The Garden Cities Movement was developed by Ebenezer

Howard in 1898 following the Industrial Revolution (Siccardi,

2016). This is an urban planning concept put forward in an

attempt to improve the living conditions of the lower and middle

classes due to the overcrowding of large cities such as

London and Manchester:

“The problem with which we have no to deal, shortly stated, is

this: How to make our Garden City experiment the steppingstone

to a higher and better form of industrial life generally

throughout the country”, Howard (1965, p.126).

An idea pointed out by Howard called ‘The Three Magnets’

represents the things which cause people to gather in cities such

as work, convenience, social lives, nature, noise level etc. (1965,

p.46-49). His theory was that these three spectrums had to be

combined in order to create living conditions which

incorporated the best of the city and the countryside. 

Principals of the Garden Cities Movement

The city would have residential buildings constructed for

a set maximum number of inhabitants and these would

not be expanded upon.

• The ideal city would be located on a 6000-acre area of

land predominantly used for agriculture purposes so

that the quality of the land would be very good.

• A person or small company would privately own the

land of the garden city.

• Revenue to pay for mortgages and to pay for city services

would be raised from the rent paid by the inhabitants.

• Private industry would be encouraged. All of the residents

should be able to find work within the city with no need

to venture far.

• All of the facilities needed to live in the city would be

provided. These include schools, colleges, shops,

offices, hospitals etc.

• The capacity of the town would be approximately 3000

people.

• The city would be a balance of nature and industry.

• Connections to the nearby central cities would be

established to form a network (Green Belt)

Encyclopædia Britannica (2016)

Mentioned by Eugenia Siccardi (2016), Towns such as

Letchworth and Port Sunlight are prime examples of early

Garden cities. While having transport connections with the

other cities in their vicinity, these cities contain everything that

was sufficient in order to self-sustain, such as schools, hospitals,

jobs and housing. After reaching the desired population density,

there was no substantial growth in the cities in order to maintain

a constant balance, resulting in these areas staying the

same size rather than the expansion noted in regular cities.

This allowed the cities to have some diversity in the

communities while giving the residents a relatively quiet

environment along with plenty of interaction with nature via

parks, gardens, fields etc. This balanced lifestyle and

environment was intended to keep the residents calm and to

give them peace of mind by combining two of ‘The Three

Magnets’, ‘Town’ and ‘Country’ as stated by Ebenezer

Howard (1965).

 

Methods

High density living is the opposite of what Ebenezer Howard was

attempting to achieve with his Garden Cities Movement as he

was aiming for a rural type environment.

However, the reason that he proposed a low density town was

in order to prevent the mishaps such as widespread illness

which were occurring in the bigger cities due to overcrowding

as a way to improve the living conditions of the middle and lower

class citizens due to living in the “Crowded, unhealthy cities”

(Howard 1902).

With the rise of modern technology since the revolution in

the 19th century, advancements have been made in aspects

such as ventilation and lighting (both natural and

mechanical/artificial), sewage systems, water filtration, supplying

gas and electricity, medication and also in aspects of

understanding the psychology and behaviour of humans and

animals. All of these things combined have resulted in the living

conditions of developed countries sky rocket.

An example of one of these criteria being improved would be

the sewage system created in London which took place during

the industrial revolution. The conditions of hygiene were so

poor that there was a period during 1858 called the ‘Great Stink’.

This was due to the waste in the river Thames reaching a point

that it was no different from that of the guttering under the

streets.

“Near the bridges the feculence rolled up in clouds so

dense that they were visible at the surface, even in

water of this kind. ... The smell was very bad, and

common to the whole of the water; it was the same as

that which now comes up from the gully-holes in the

streets; the whole river was for the time a real sewer."

Michael Faraday (1855).

Since this time, the structure, materials and machinery

controlling the functioning of the sewers have changed and

been made much more efficient. Evidenced by the way that even

the current population of London is being sustained by it in

comparison to it being dysfunctional during the past.

Due to these improvements from the past, the population

density does not have as much of an effect on the conditions

and cleanliness of the environment anymore. As such, while

comparing the Aqua Tower building to the Garden Cities

movement, the aspect of population density will be

disregarded and the focus will be on the rest of the themes. This

way it will be possible to conclude whether they are fulfilled and

to what extent, while being constrained to the limited area of

the building.

As stated in the above section, the Garden cities movement

focuses on the themes of: Private ownership, self-sustainability,

facilities provided to inhabitants, encouraged industry, intercity

transportation links, agriculture and paying for any

maintenance with rent. In order to complete the comparison I

will be relying on case studies and critical information provided

by the architects who designed the building. By doing this step

by step, it will form an evaluation as to how well the building

conforms to these points (with the exception of the population

control and 6000 acres of land).

The Aqua Tower

Figure 2, 3, 4 (respectively)

Images showing perspectives of the Aqua Tower (Taken by

Steve Hall, 2011)

Studio Gang Architects designed the Aqua Tower, which was

built in 2010 under the commission of Magellan Development as

a residential complex in the heart of Chicago.

Address: 200 North Columbus Drive, Chicago, IL 60601,

United States

Figure 5

Image from Google Maps (2016)

• The building features an 82 mixed-use residential

tower, 215 hotel rooms, 476 residential units and 263

condominium units and penthouses in terms of

residential space. Inside of this space, the designers

have well thought out ways of making the building more

economically and environmentally friendly via the

appliances, materials and structural strategies. Among

them:

• Many of the appliances being Energy Star-rated with

KitchenAid dishwashers and refrigerators

• Bamboo flooring has been incorporated and this has led

to using up only a fifth of the resources that would have

been used to get the same effect

• HanStone Quartz countertops and plumbing fixtures

have been used in order to reduce the flow of water per

minute which helps with water conservation

• The terraces serve to also provide a foil to wind pressure,

alongside providing shading to reduce solar exposure

during the summer while granting passive heating in the

winter.

• Low-E coatings have been applied to the glass. Different

areas of the building have also been given a higher

performing coat in accordance to the seasonal sun

patterns to increase efficiency (CT Buh, 2011)

In addition to these features which conserve energy over time,

during the construction process, over 80% of the waste which

would usually be set to a landfill was instead sent to recycling

centres. The building is constructed on a former brownfield site

which has helped to prevent the further loss of rural land (J.

Mariah Brown. 2012).

 

“The design was inspired by the striated limestone outcroppings

common in the Great Lakes area (see photo below). But this

sinuous shape is not just a mere formal gesture, but it is also

a strategy to extend the views and maximize solar shading. And

by looking at the plans we see a rational structure, true to the

Mies legacy in the city.” ArchDaily (2009)

Figure 6

In addition to the residential areas, the building also provides a

working environment, to a certain extent. There is underground

parking for residents and staff along with 55,000-sqf worth of

retail and office space, which can be used by the residents once

again.

 

Figure 7: Plan and Section of the Aqua House (ArchDaily

2009)

Among the most noticeable features of the design, the green

roof (labelled four on the diagram above) is one of the largest in

Chicago. This garden terrace includes an outdoor pool,

running track, sub-gardens, fire pits and a yoga terrace. The

garden is extended over existing infrastructure such as an

electrical subway and was to align with a three-level roadway,

which is adjacent. It is then linked to the street level carpark

and lakefront via the use of stairs, walkways and elevators

which serves to connect the 738 residency rooms to the rest of

the city and facilities such as gyms, work, libraries, parks and

schools/colleges, thus reducing the need to drive and

attempting to improve the quality of urban living (ArchDaily

2009).

Image showing the rooftop garden. (Taken by Steve Hall, 2011)

The rooftop garden also incorporates the features of a selfdrainage

system. This collects rainwater for self-irrigation,

which once again saves a large amount of energy and

water through recycling.

 

Analysis

In this section, I’ll be looking into the themes of the Garden Cities

movement and begin to compare them to the way that the

Aqua Tower was designed. In terms of being privately owned,

self-sustaining, facilities provided, encouraged industry, intercity

links, agriculture and the cervices being paid with the rent

earned from occupants.

Despite these being the main points of focus, there is also other

aspects to consider such as the way that the greenery

occupies the site will not directly conform to the way in which

the garden cities movement has specified. This is because the

focus is on a building and not on an entire town however while

focusing on this point, it’s also possible to look into the way that

the building has used its limited space to incorporate the

greenery in order to gather a similar effect to that which is

sought after in the garden cities movement (Food provided for

the residents and the calming and tranquil effect that the nature

has on the mentality).

Privately Owned:

Aqua Realty Holdings LLC are the sole management of the

tower. Although it was Magellan Development who hired the

architecture firm Studio Gang, led by Jeanne Gang, to design it

at the cost of $300 million, privately owns the Aqua tower. This

conforms perfectly to the garden cities movement as it states

that the city, building in this case, would be owned by a

person or a small organisation. In this way, it can act

independently as a singular unit.

Self-Sustaining:

Despite the building not being sustainable in terms of

supporting its own economy and food supply, the building has

incorporated various aspects into the design in order to aid in

saving energy and also make the design perform highly in the

aspect of energy efficiency. These include:

o Balconies extending further on the south side to

provide sun shading.

o Tinted reflective glass between balconies to prevent

overheating.

o Green roof which supports self-irrigation by collecting

rain water.

o Bamboo flooring reduced the amount of wood

needed.

o Plumbing fixtures which reduce gallons per minute.

o KitchenAid refrigerators and dishwashers.

o Energy Star-rated appliances. (Studio Gang, 2009)

Due to these energy saving features, the way that materials

were recycled during the construction process and the way

that the building facilitates the use of green spaces where

possible, the Aqua Tower has been awarded a LEED (Leadership

in Energy and Environmental Design) silver rating from the U.S

Green building council.

Ultimately, despite being economically and environmentally

friendly in many aspects, the building does not to conform to

the standards of the garden city movement in terms of being

self-sustaining. This is because it cannot be compared to the

standards of a city/town, which can provide food and fresh

water to all its inhabitants even with the refinement of

rainwater taken into consideration. In this way, although the

tower is considered sustainable, it is designed in a way to save

energy consumption rather than in order for it to manage the

needs of its residency without the need for outside influences.

There are however, ways that the building could improve on

this and incorporate these facilities into its design. If the

building was to use more of its internal space or even create a

smaller separate building to provide spaces which could be

used for things such as a library and gallery then some of these

aspects would be covered. However, if the design wanted to

include these facilities in a way that totally made up for the

current deficit then this wouldn’t be possible with the location it

has been placed in due to the current density of the city centre

in Chicago and the massive amount of space that would be

required for these, much less a fully operational medical

centre.

Facilities provided:

While thinking about the way that garden cities are supposed to

provide for its residents in a way that a major city would, in

terms of access to hospitals, schools, agriculture, jobs and

industry, then the Aqua Tower is severely lacking as most of

these are not accounted for. What the residential does supply,

however, is:

An 82 story (mixed use) residential tower with 215 hotel rooms

and 467 residential units

263 condominium units

55,000 square feet of retail and office space 6 levels of

underground parking

Base area of 140,000 square feet accompanied by an 82,550-

square foot terrace with gardens, hot tubs, pools, running

track and fire pit.

In terms of necessities, this doesn’t come close to the

requirements of the garden cities principals as it is missing out

the major facilities when it comes to healthcare and education,

much less banking. Therefore if looking at the building

objectively then it falls short without a doubt and does not

provide for the residents at a sufficient standard.

At the same time, while looking at a broader picture and taking

not only the building, but also the placement of the building into

account, the requirement of facilities is more than substantial

since the building is in the centre of Chicago. The problem

with looking at this would be that the building is then relying on

the rest of the city and is no longer acting as an independent unit

as required.

However, this is already a building which is incorporated into

the heart of Chicago. In this case, while taking the most basic

needs of shelter, facilities and food/water being provided on site

from appliances and the retail on the lower levels, there are

multiple buildings which could provide information, education

and health care which are within walking distance. As such the

requirements are then fulfilled in the extended environment.

These points are also very similarly interlinked with the

previous point mentioning the self sustainability of the building

(See Page 13). Although these educational and historic

buildings do not directly impact the health of the residents, it

does effect their development in a negative way and this was

another massive concept of the garden cities movement which

must be taken into consideration. Since we are considering the

functionality of a building and not a city/town, I think that in the

comparison to the garden cities movement, the placement of

the building within the city is something that should be taken

into account, as the building was designed with this in mind.

Encouraged Industry:

Although the building does not have access to a vast array of

jobs within it due to the lack of facilities such as large scale retail,

schools and hospitals, there are many opportunities for the

residents of the building and the rest of the city to find work

within it (to a certain capacity). Positions for things such as

cleaners, maintenance workers, electricians, receptionists and

security are all employed. Despite the majority of these people

being contracted from outside companies, the possibilities of

employment exist nonetheless. Another factor to think

about while concerning the jobs within the building going to

people who are from the outside rather than the residents, is

that the majority of the rooms are one or two person rooms and

almost all of the rest are comprised of hotel

rooms. The people who are living within the building are well off

and wouldn’t

be expected to work within the building.

However, although these maintenance and building related

jobs were not designed for the residents, there are office

spaces and retail area which take up 55,000 square feet of

space. This space would not only be put in place with

expectations of outside companies and professionals to

use, but for the residents who would then in turn have a

convenient place with a close proximity to their homes in

which they could carry out their work. Through this office and

retail space, the shortcomings of not having the specific

requirements for some of the jobs such as the schools and

hospitals has been overcome. This is because of the nature of

the office space, which is very versatile and therefor allows its

use to cover a wide range of professions and studios to be set

up. From architectural workspace to an accountancy desk,

these are all compatible.

Inter-city Links:

The building does not have direct links to other cities as it is

located within Chicago, however due to its central location, it

has connections to a large area of the city. Not only through the

use of public transport but due to the 5 stories of underground

parking, the residents are even able to drive in and out of the

building and instantly access the main road. As this is the case,

transport to and from the building within the city is not difficult

to achieve in the least.

Agriculture:

Although a large amount of the agriculture referred to in the

Garden cities movement are crops reared by the inhabitants,

agriculture is also referred to in the aspect of the parks and

gardens which would be found all over the towns. An example

of this can be seen below in the plan of Port Sunlight which was

an early garden city created for workers from the Sunlight

Soap factory.

Figure 8 Plan of Port Sunlight in 1914 (2014)

Comparing this outlook to the Aqua Tower, the tower does not

fall short in providing green spaces for the inhabitants which

grants them a calm and relaxing environment when they are

not confined to their own apartments. Not only are there rooftop

gardens on both the top of the building and also on a lower

levelled roof, there is also greenery surrounding the plaza area

around the design in the form of a large scale parks. Due to the

fact that the building is located in close proximity to the water

front, not only is it a very scenic area from both the balconies of

the residences and on the ground while walking around, the

parks in the area are in no short supply. Towards the south, you

can find Millennium Park, Giant Park and Maggie Daley Park, just

to name a few.

Services paid by rent:

As the Aqua Tower is a privately owned residential complex, the

maintenance is handled by the owners, Aqua Realty Holdings

LLC. These repairs and upgrades are facilitated by the rent

that is gained from the rooms and offices being rented out.

This therefor fulfils the aspect of the Garden Cities movement,

which focuses on an environment that can maintain itself

financially by relying on an upkeep that is attained by itself.

Natures effect on the mentality:

“But neither the Town magnet nor the Country magnet

represents the full plan and purpose of nature. Human

society and the beauty of nature are meant to be

enjoyed together.” Ebenezer Howard (1965)

One of the biggest aspects of the Aqua Tower which correlates

with the garden City Movement is the way that greenery, in the

form of fields and gardens, is implemented in the design. In

both the garden cities and the Aqua Tower, natural forms play a

big part in the environment as these play a large part in

making the surroundings a peaceful and stress free place.

Howard had the foresight to understand that natural forms had

a large effect on the psychology of people and even more

evidence of this can be found in recent studies as said:

“Increasingly there is evidence for a fairly direct effect of

certain forms of nature on our psychological function,

and a companion of biological influence on landscape

preferences.” Paul A. Bell (2001, p.52)

This goes to show the extent at which the natural environment

is able to affect a person’s state of mind.

This is especially important when put into the context of

someone’s daily life.

The Aqua Tower draws on this not only in the way that the

garden has been employed on the roof, but also in the form

of the façade of the building in general. As the inspiration

was derived from the naturally eroded limestone, the façade has

a natural flowing look when observed from the outside which

emphasises natural forms. Not only this but due to the form

of these balconies, they have an extended view, capturing

even more of the horizon when gazed upon from the inside.

This in turn allows more calming views over the city and over

the water front depending on which room the resident is in.

 

Conclusions

To come to the conclusion of whether the building conforms to

the Garden Cities Movement, I’ll be reflecting on the previous

section of analysis and thinking about how well the Aqua Tower

compares. However, I haven’t only considered whether the Aqua

Tower can meet the standards of all the categories. I’ve tried to

understand to which extent it satisfies the standards of each of

them and what the ratio of conformity to non-conformity is.

Another thing that I have considered while deciding on the result

is whether the design does not actually conform to the

principals of the garden cities movement but does satisfy the

overall needs. For example, one of the categories covered in

the three magnets is the tranquillity supplied by a natural

environment. This is in the form of both agriculture and

aspects such as parks and fields. This is not just to supply

greenery and food, but also to positively affect the mental

health and atmosphere of the residents and town. This is not

specifically covered in the principals however it is an

underlying aim of the movement to improve the living

conditions of the working class (Howard, 1965, p.46-49).

Despite the tower not being able to provide the required

amount of greenery, it does accommodate for a suitable

amount on its green roof. In terms of using the influences of

nature to provide a calming environment, the

building also uses various strategies such as the shape of the

balconies extending the views from apartments which grant a

beautiful scenery to the residents and the building also has

its façade designed with inspiration derived from weathered

limestone which gives it a more natural and calming impression

from the outside. This achieves the same effect as the

previously stated principal however it derives its influences

from nature in a different way which is still a success.

The biggest downfall of the Aqua tower is its inability to

incorporate all the facilities required of a city, into its limited

amount of space. The only solutions to this with the site would

be to either add extensions to the current building to supply

basic versions of a school, pharmacy, library etc. or to get rid of

some of the rooms of the building and use this now converted

space to include these facilities.

In the end, however, we are looking at a building which is

incorporated into a city. If thought of in terms of the Garden

Cities Movement, then it would be a slight push yet it’s possible

to claim that the building is the form of the garden city and the

city of Chicago is the green belt network. In this fashion, it is

fine for the building to be expected to use the resources of the

city and this shortcoming is then covered for. It can then be said

to fulfil the aspects of the facilities provided, intercity links and

ties in with encouraged industry. The industry aspect is fulfilled

because of the businesses and offices near the Aqua Tower.

Not only this but the building itself also provides offices and

retail on the lower levels so there was never an issue with the

building conforming to this principal.

In terms of being self-owned by either a single person or a small

organisation the Aqua tower also achieves this, as it is owned by

Aqua Realty Holdings LLC. This also leads into the last point of

the building being maintained by the rent that comes from the

residents. Due to the building being self-owned and operated

as its own unit rather than a part of a larger entity, the rent from

the clients can be used to maintain and repair the building.

In light of all of the previous points, the building abides by most

of the principals of the garden cities movement and can be

seen that it does offer a more sustainable alternative along

with better living conditions rather than normal inner city living

council houses which the Garden Cities Movement was

developed in order to prevent (Siccardi, 2016). The only

problem to this is that it does not adhere to one vital aspect of

the garden cities movement and one of the more key elements.

This is due to the rent of the building being something that

working-class people would undoubtedly be unable to afford.

This is also the reason the movement was established, to

improve the living conditions of the lower classes.

 

References

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Edited, Osborn, F.J., Mumford, L. and Howard, E. (1965) Garden

cities of to-morrow. 8th edn. Cambridge, MA: Faber and

Faber.

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https://www.britannica.com/topic/garden-city- urban-planning

[Accessed: 16 November 2016].

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Preservation of a Historic Planned Community. Available

from: http://www.greenbelt.com/gcom/doc/shprentz.pdf

[Accessed: 21 November 2016]

Aqua Tower / Studio Gang (2009). Available from:

http://www.archdaily.com/42694/aqua-tower-studio-gangarchitects/

[Accessed: 22

November 2016]

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of-nature-in-the- man-made-landscape/ [Accessed: 25

November 2016]

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[Accessed 06/10/2016]

List of Figures

Figure 1: Ebenezer Howard’s diagram of the three magnets

Edited, Osborn, F.J., Mumford, L. and Howard, E. (1965) Garden

cities of to-morrow. 8th edn. Cambridge, MA: Faber and

Faber. P.46

Figure 2: Image showing perspectives of the Aqua Tower taken by

Steve Hall, (2011) http://www.archdaily.com/42694/aquatower-

studio-gang-architects

Figure 3: Image showing perspectives of the Aqua Tower taken by

Steve Hall (2011) http://www.archdaily.com/42694/aquatower-

studio-gang-architects

Figure 4: Image showing perspectives of the Aqua Tower taken by

Steve Hall (2011) http://www.archdaily.com/42694/aquatower-

studio-gang-architects

Figure 5: Map of the area around the Aqua Tower in Chicago

Image taken from google maps

Figure 6: Image of the limestone that influenced the façade of the

Aqua House Photographer Unknown

http://www.archdaily.com/42694/aqua-tower-studio-gangarchitects

Figure 7: Plan and section of the Aqua Tower

http://www.archdaily.com/42694/aqua-tower-studio-gangarchitects

Figure 8: Plan of Port Sunlight in 1814 (2014)

http://www.liverpool-landscapes.net/2014/10/port-sunlighttraces-

of-nature-in-the- man-made-landscape/

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